There are hundreds of thousands of Bridges in the world, more than 600,000 in the United States alone. More and more Bridges are being built that provide the necessary links between regions and countries. Over time, the cost of maintenance and replacement has reached enormous figures. Many Bridges are in poor condition. Many were built after world war ii and are expected to last more than 60 years, but traffic is much larger than planned, and it is common practice to reduce maintenance costs.
Life cycle cost (LCC) estimates consistently show the benefits of maintaining operations as little as possible over a century of life. Stainless steel, especially duplex stainless steel, because of its high strength and corrosion resistance, is able to meet all climate and weather conditions, thus providing an attractive solution that can provide structural integrity over an unlimited period of time. When used in critical regions, the additional cost is less than 10% compared to a cheap short-term solution.
Duplex stainless steel is becoming more and more popular in bridge and other engineering applications due to its superior performance. These steels are usually twice as strong as austenitic or ferritic alloys. Because of its increased strength, it requires less material, saving money and reducing weight.
Another factor in bridge design is stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of materials. In this regard, duplex stainless steel has the preferred properties of ferritic alloys and does not encounter the same brittleness found in 304 and 316 alloys, which exhibit corrosion cracking under conditions such as high humidity and high temperature.
A typical case of global stainless steel bridge
1) the Singapore marina bay pedestrian bridge -- Helix, which was put into use in June 2010, is 280m long and USES 1700t2205 duplex stainless steel, mainly pipes. The steel used by the bridge is only 1/5 of that of the traditional box girder bridge.
2) Apate bridge in Stockholm, Sweden, which was put into use in 2005, spans the Sickla canal. The environment is Marine atmosphere and urban atmosphere, and there will be snow salt melting in winter. The whole length is 62m. It is built with high strength duplex stainless steel 2205.
3) Switzerland marla canyon suspension bridge, spanning Hinterrhein river, the bridge 40 m long, the suspension cable adopted high strength and corrosion resistance good duplex stainless steel 2205 building, guardrail, armrest choose 316 l stainless steel construction.
4) the arch pedestrian landscape bridge in Yorkshire, England was built and put into use in 2001. The arch and the bridge deck are at an Angle of 50 °. The span of this bridge is 80m. Bridges are built largely of stainless steel. Among them, the arch is 2205 stainless steel plate, hanging rope, handrails and guardrail are constructed of 316 stainless steel.
5) the arch bridge in terni, Italy, which spans the Nera river and is used for pedestrians and bicycles, is made of 316 stainless steel cables that hold the steel beams and stainless steel railings. The bridge has a span of 32m and a deck width of 5.25m.
6) cable-stayed bridge at st. saviour wharf, London, England, located on the south bank of the Thames. Made of stainless steel.
7) a pedestrian bridge in the Andresy region of western Paris, France, crosses a busy road and connects a school to a gymnasium. The span of the bridge is 33m, the bridge deck is 2.5m wide, and the arch, deck, railings and handrails of the bridge are made of 316 stainless steel.
8) the pedestrian bridge in bilbao, Spain, spans the nervion river, connecting the university of DE ustor and the guggenheim museum. The bridge is located in the sea water environment of the bay of bisya. The supporting structure is made of duplex stainless steel 2304 with high strength and good corrosion resistance, with a life expectancy of 50 years.
9) Gala Galdana bridge, which was put into use in 2005, is located in Menorca, Spain, across the Algendar river, with a bridge surface span of 55m and a bridge width of 13m. It is the first stainless steel road bridge in Europe. The main structure of the bridge, including two parallel arches, two longitudinal beams and beams supporting the bridge deck, is made of duplex stainless steel 2205.
10) the stonecutters island bridge was opened to traffic in Hong Kong at the end of 2009. It is a cable structure. It is located in the ocean and polluted urban atmosphere. Its construction life is 120 years. With a total length of 1596m and a main span of 1018m, the bridge spans the ramballe channel and serves as the main access to the busy kwai chung container terminal. The most striking feature of the bridge is the pointed cone-shaped twin single towers at both ends, supporting a deck up to 50m wide and a minaret up to 295m high. The lower part is a reinforced concrete structure, and the upper 115m is a composite structure consisting of a 2205 duplex stainless steel sheet skin with a thickness of 20cm and a reinforced concrete core.
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